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January 05, 2017

Article Related to Bihar - 2 | bihar.infozones.in



About Republic Day



26th January 1950 is one of the most important days in Indian history as it was on this day the constitution of India came into force and India became a truly sovereign state. In this day India became a totally republican unit. The country finally realized the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the numerous freedom fighters who, fought for and sacrificed their lives for the Independence of their country. So, the 26th of January was decreed a national holiday and has been recognized and celebrated as the Republic Day of India, ever since.

Population and Growth Rate


At 00.00 hours of 1st March, 2001, the state of Bihar, with an area of 94,163 sq kms approximately, had a population of 8,28,78,796 persons. Till 1991 Census, the composite state of Bihar was the second most populous state in the country (containing slightly more than 10% of the country’s population), next only to Uttar Pradesh. However, after bifurcation of the state of Bihar and creation of the new state of Jharkhand, the rank of Bihar among the states of India has slipped down to third, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra occupying the first and the second position respectively.
Visit http://gov.bih.nic.in/Profile/CensusStats-01.htm

HOLI - Festival of Colours


Holi, or Holli (Sanskrit: होली), is a spring religious festival celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations, such as Suriname, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United Kingdom, United States, Mauritius, and Fiji. In West Bengal and Orissa of India it is known as Dolyatra (Doul Jatra) or Basanta-Utsav ("spring festival"). The most celebrated Holi is that of the Braj region, in locations connected to the god Krishna: Mathura, Vrindavan, Nandagaon, and Barsana. These places have become tourist destinations during the festive season of Holi, which lasts here to up to sixteen days.Holi is celebrated at the end of the winter season on the last full moon day of the lunar month Phalguna (February/March), (Phalgun Purnima), which usually falls in the later part of February or March.

Census of India 2011


भारत की 15वीं जनगणना के पहले और दूसरे चरण के प्रारंभिक आंकड़े गुरुवार को दिल्ली में जारी किए गए। दिल्ली में भारत के जनगणना आयुक्त सी चंद्रमौली ने बताया कि प्रारंभिक आंकड़ो के अनुसार भारत की मौजूदा आबादी एक अरब 21 करोड़ है। इनमें 62 करोड़ पुरुष और 58 करोड़ महिलाएं हैं।
अब भारत की आबादी अमरीका, इंडोनेशिया, ब्राज़ील, पाकिस्तान, बांग्लादेश और जापान की कुल आबादी के बराबर है.
दुनिया के सबसे ज़्यादा आबादी वाले देश चीन और भारत के बीच का फासला भी घटा है. 2001 में 23.8 करोड़ से 2011 में अब ये 13 करोड़ हो गया है.त दस वर्षों में भारत की जनसंख्या में 17.6 प्रतिशत बढ़ोतरी हुई है. इस दौरान कुल जनसंख्या में 18 करोड़ का इज़ाफ़ा हुआ है.
15वीं जनसंख्या के प्रारंभिक आंकड़ों के मुताबिक़ पिछले दस वर्षों में भारत का कुल लिंगानुपात 933 से बढ़कर 940 हो गया है, जो वर्ष 1961 के बाद सर्वाधिक है.
लेकिन बच्चों का लिंगानुपात 927 से घटकर 914 हो गया है. ये स्वतंत्र भारत का सबसे निचला स्तर है.
आंकड़ों के मुताबिक साल 2001 में कुल जनसंख्या का करीब 16 फीसदी बच्चे थे, लेकिन साल 2011 में ये कम होकर करीब 13 फीसदी हैं.
पंद्रहवी जनसंख्या के प्रारंभिक आंकड़ों के मुताबिक भारत में साक्षरता की दर साल 2001 के मुकाबले करीब 10 फीसदी बढ़ी है.
भारत में अब 82.1 फीसदी पुरुष और 65.5 फीसदी महिलाएं साक्षर हैं. जनगणना आयुक्त ने बताया कि पिछले दस वर्षों में ज़्यादा महिलाएं (5 फीसदी) साक्षर हुई हैं.
जनसंख्या के आधार पर भारत की राजधानी में प्रति वर्ग किलोमीटर सबसे ज़्यादा आबादी, 11,297 लोग रहते हैं.
उत्तर प्रदेश भारत का सबसे बड़ा राज्य है. इसकी आबादी ब्राज़ील देश से भी ज़्यादा है.
Visit http://censusindia.gov.in

India Census 2011- Population


Ministry of Home affairs, Government of India has released the provisional data of the census 2011. According to the release by the ministry our country has population of 1210.19 million (63.72 million males and 586.46 million females). Percentage wise there are 51.54 percent males and 48.46 percent females. These provisional figures of Census 2011 were released in New Delhi by Union Home Secretary Shri G.K.Pillai and RGI Shri C. Chandramouli.
Salient features of the provisional census data are following:
Percentage of literate persons went up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 in 2011.
Population Growth of 181 million during the decade 2001-2011.
For the first time since 1911-21 the growth in population is less than previous decade.
Uttar Pradesh (199.5 million) tops the list with highest population which is followed by Maharashtra with 112 million.
Decadal growth rate of populous states has declined

- Uttar Pradesh (25.85% to 20.09%)
- Maharashtra (22.73% to 15.99%)
- Bihar (28.62% to 25.07%)
- West Bengal (17.77 % to 13.93%)
- Andhra Pradesh (14.59% to 11.10%)
- Madhya Pradesh (24.26% to 20.30%)
Population of Children in the age-group 0-6 is 158.8 million (-5 million since 2001)


Sex ratio,Literacy


Sex ratio of BIHAR , literacy in 2011 census.

History of Bihar


The greatest Indian empire, the Mauryan empire, originated from Magadha in 325 BC, it was started by Chandragupta Maurya who was born in Magadha, and had its capital at Patliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Patliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world. According to indologist A.L. Basham, the author of the book The Wonder that was India,
“ The age in which true history appeared in India was one of great intellectual and spiritual ferment. Mystics and sophists of all kinds roamed through the Ganges Valley, all advocating some form of mental discipline and asceticism as a means to salvation; but the age of the Buddha, when many of the best minds were abandoning their homes and professions for a life of asceticism, was also a time of advance in commerce and politics. It produced not only philosophers and ascetics, but also merchant princes and men of action. ”

Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next one thousand years. The Gupta Empire, which again originated from Magadha in 240 CE, is referred to as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. Historians place the Gupta dynasty alongside with the Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Roman Empire as a model of a classical civilization. The capital of Gupta empire was Pataliputra, present day Patna. The Vikramshila and Nalanda universities were among the oldest and best centres of education in ancient India. Some writers believe the period between the 400 CE and 1000 CE saw gains by Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism. The Hindu kings gave much grants to the Buddhist monks for building Brahmaviharas. A National Geographic edition reads, "The essential tenets of Buddhism and Hinduism arose from similar ideas best described in the Upanishads, a set of Hindu treatises set down in India largely between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C."
Kalidasa's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntala is one of the Legacy of the Gupta Empire.

The Buddhism of Magadha was swept away by the Muslim invasion under Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred in 12th century CE In the years 1553–56 Pashtun dynasty ruler 'Adil Shah' took the reigns of North-India and made 'Chunar' his capital. He deputed 'Hemu' the Hindu General, also known as 'Hemu Vikramaditya' as his Prime Minister and Chief-of-Army. Hemu fought and won 22 battles continuously against Afghan rebels and Akbar's forces at Agra and Delhi and established 'Hindu Raj' in Delhi, after a foreign rule of 300 years. Hemu, who was bestowed the title of 'Samrat' at Purana Quila, Delhi was then known as 'Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya'. Hemu lost his life while fighting in the 'Second Battle of Panipat' against Akbar's forces on 7 Nov. 1556. During 1557–1576, Akbar, the Mughal emperor, annexed Bihar and Bengal to his empire. Thus, the medieval period was mostly one of anonymous provincial existence.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna. After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.The rich resources of fertile Land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign entrepreneurs,specially the Dutch and Britishers in eighteenth century. A number of Agrio based industries had been started in Bihar by the foreign entrepreneurs. From this point, Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Bihar now celebrates its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March from 2010. In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa.

Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur and his army, as well as countless other persons from Bihar, contributed to the India's First War of Independence (1857), also called the Sepoy Mutiny by some historians. Resurgence in the history of Bihar came during the struggle for India's independence.
Rajendra Prasad (Sitting left) & Anugrah Narayan Sinha (sitting right) during 1917 Satyagraha movement

It was from Bihar that Mahatma Gandhi launched his pioneering civil-disobedience movement, Champaran Satyagraha. Brahmins in Champaran had earlier revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia) and Pandit Raj Kumar Shukla took Mahatma Gandhi to Champaran and the Champaran Satyagraha began.[48] Raj Kumar Shukla drew the attention of Mahatma Gandhi to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. Champaran Satyagraha received the spontaneous support from many Bihari nationalists like Rajendra Prasad who became the first President of India and Anugrah Narayan Sinha who ultimately became the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of Bihar.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, peasants movement was an important consequence of the Freedom Movement. The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who had formed in 1929, the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), in order to mobilize peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. Gradually the peasant movement intensified and spread across the rest of India. All these radical developments on the peasant front culminated in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936 with Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President. This movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal (zamindari) system instituted by the British. It was led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan, Pandit Karyanand Sharma, Baba Nagarjun and others. Pandit Yamuna Karjee along with Rahul Sankritayan and a few others started publishing a Hindi weekly Hunkar from Bihar, in 1940. Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading it.

Bihar made an immense contribution to the Freedom Struggle, with outstanding leaders like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sri Krishna Sinha,Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha,K. B. Sahay, Brajkishore Prasad,Mulana Mazharul Haque, Jayaprakash Narayan,Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha,Satyendra Narayan Sinha,Ram Dulari Sinha,Basawon Singh, Rameshwar Prasad Sinha, Yogendra Shukla, Baikuntha Shukla, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Pandit Yamuna Karjee and many others who worked for India's freedom relentlessly and helped in the upliftment of the underprivileged masses. Khudiram Bose, Upendra Narayan Jha "Azad", Prafulla Chaki and Baikuntha Shukla were active in revolutionary movement in Bihar.

On 15 January 1934, Bihar was devastated by an earthquake of magnitude 8.4. Some 30,000 people were said to have died in the quake.

The state of Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar in the year 2000. The 2005 Bihar assembly elections ended 15 years of continuous RJD rule in the state, giving way to NDA led by Nitish Kumar.

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam, making an impression that India still carries tribal localized mindset despite of more than 50 years of Independence as a Republic

Geography of Bihar


Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km². the state is located between 21°-58'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son River, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Falgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand.

Climate of Bihar


Bihar is mildly cold in the winter, with the lowest temperatures being in the range from 4–10 °C (39–50 °F). Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer, with average highs around 35–40 °C (95–104 °F). April to mid June are the hottest months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October, November, February, and March have a pleasant climate.

Flora and fauna


Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km², which is 7.1% of its geographical area.The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts. Shorea Robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia bellayoica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium (Paisar), Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora across the forest of Bihar.

The Ganges River dolphins, or "sois" are found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra.This river dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India. It is now considered amongst the most endangered mammals of the region. The dolphins range from 2.3 to 2.6 meters in length. They have impaired vision due to the muddy river water but use sonar signals to navigate.Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary ,near Bhagalpur is set up to ensure the protection of this species.

Valmiki National Park, West Champaran district, covering about 800 km² of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.

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